On the 20th of July 2023, a small but enthusiastic group of invited experts from the H4C CoP came together to discuss the role of education for industrial symbiosis, industrial-urban symbiosis and the circular economy (IS/I-US/CE). It was discussed that the three concepts should be taught more intensively at higher education /vocational training level.

In addition, engineers working on IS/I-US/CE topics also need knowledge on economic and managerial topics, in particular risk assessment and reliability; and on regulatory/societal aspects. Also, Life Cycle Assessment training should be offered to professionals working on IS/I-US/CE topics.

Furthermore, due to the high level of collaboration needed for a successful implementation of these concepts, soft skills are paramount.